Introduction: Solar Panel Manufacturing
Solar energy is the ultimate and free source of clean energy on the planet Earth which has been in existence since the very beginning of the universe.
However, due to technical barriers, we were not able to harvest the maximum of the solar energy for our needs. But with the advancement of the technology we have now discovered multiple channels to harvest the solar energy for our own use.
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As per the renewable capacity statistics 2021, a total of 713,970 Megawatt of solar energy was produced globally and with every proceeding year, new solar projects are being added on a large scale to minimize the dependencies of carbon fuels for energy production.
India is turning out to be a new hub for the solar power companies to establish new plants in the northern regions of India.
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Currently India has a capacity of producing 40,000 MW of solar energy annually and looking at the scope, these figures will soon turn into 6 digits by 2025.
The idea of sustainable development is encouraging each individual to look for an alternative source of clean energy. Also, the government of India is now more focused on encouraging these energy sources and has already launched multiple schemes.
Currently, the Indian market has grown rapidly posting a CAGR of 17.33% between FY16-20.
And the country is targeting to install solar plants of 280 GW capacity by the year 2030.
Recently the Government of India has increased the import taxes on solar panels by 30 % in order to promote local manufacturers to enter and rule the market. The government of India has taken several initiatives with the ministry of new and renewable energy (MNRE) in drafting new plans and putting out new tenders, which in turn is expected to drive the Indian manufacturer during the forecast period.
What is a PV Module?
A solar cell panel, solar electric panel, photo-voltaic (PV) module or just solar panel is an assembly of photovoltaic cells mounted in a framework for installation. Solar panels use sunlight as a source of energy to generate direct current electricity. A collection of PV modules is called a PV panel, and a system of PV panels is called an array. Arrays of a photovoltaic system supply solar electricity to electrical equipment., A solar cell panel, solar electric panel, photo-voltaic (PV) module or just solar panel is an assembly of photovoltaic cells mounted in a framework for installation. Solar panels use sunlight as a source of energy to generate direct current electricity. A collection of PV modules is called a PV panel, and a system of PV panels is called an array. Arrays of a photovoltaic system supply solar electricity to electrical equipment.
Raw Materials of PV modules:
The basic raw material of a solar panel is pure silicon. However, the outer frame enclosing an array of solar cells in each solar panel is made of glass. The glass must be highly transparent to allow the sunlight to penetrate the frame. Moreover, for maintenance and safety purposes, the glass used in the panels should not be brittle.
Solar panels constitute two forms of silicon - crystalline and amorphous. Crystalline silicon cut and made into disks of 1 cm thickness is polished to act as a material for absorbing light. Solar panels also employ cooling materials to prevent damages caused by overheating. On the other hand, panels made of amorphous silicon can be continuously rolled and made into extremely thin silicon chips that can absorb different parts of the solar spectrum. Amorphous silicon is also less susceptible to damage during installation and transportation when compared to the crystalline form.
Steps in Making a Solar Panel:
- To start with, very pure semiconductor-grade polysilicon is obtained from quartz in an electric arc furnace. With the application of carbon arc, molten polysilicon and carbon dioxide are obtained.
- The polysilicon thus obtained is heated to melting temperature and then added with traces of boron for forming a P-type semiconductor material.
- An ingot or silicon block is formed by either using a seed crystal extracted from the molten polysilicon or by casting the molten polysilicon in a block.
- The ingots are sliced using wire saws to obtain separate wafers, which are then subjected to a surface etching process. Solar cells usually employ hexagonal or rectangular wafers as they can be perfectly fitted together.
- The wafers are introduced in to a phosphorus diffusion furnace once they are cleaned to form a thin N-type semiconductor layer that covers the outer surface of the cell.
- The top part of the cell is then applied with an anti-reflective coating for reducing the loss of sunlight and provided with thin electrical contacts for connecting a solar cell to another and to a receiver.
- The back surface of each cell is deposited with an aluminized conductive material by displacing the diffused phosphorus layer in order to restore the P-type properties of the surface.
- Each cell thus formed is then tested, sorted depending on the current output and connected to other cells to form a solar panel.
Regulatory compliance for PV module:
The PV modules in India are regulated by the Bureau of Indian Standard and Ministry of new and renewable sources of energy under the compulsory registration scheme launched in 2013.
Under the said scheme the PV module needs to undergo testing from an NABL testing lab under the designated standard. The product must clear all the testing parameters, post which only the manufacturer can sell its product in the Indian market.
This registration scheme is mandatory for foreign manufacturers and Indian manufacturers to undergo the registration. Also, they must comply with all the terms and conditions of the license in order to continue business in India.
The said scheme was designed for the end consumer safety and it ensures that the quality products reach the user.
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This portion of the site is for informational purposes only. The content is not legal advice. The statements and opinions are the expression of author, not corpseed, and have not been evaluated by corpseed for accuracy, completeness, or changes in the law.
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