These rules shall apply to every urban local body, outgrowths in urban agglomerations, census towns as declared by the Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India, notified areas, notified industrial townships, areas under the control of Indian Railways, airports, airbases, Ports and harbours, defence establishments, special economic zones, State and Central government organisations, places of pilgrims, religious and historical importance as may be notified by respective State government from time to time and to every domestic, institutional, commercial and any other non residential solid waste generator situated in the areas except industrial waste, hazardous waste, hazardous chemicals, bio medical wastes, e-waste, lead acid batteries and radio-active waste, that are covered under separate rules framed under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
Criteria For Waste to Energy Process
Non recyclable waste having calorific value of 1500 K/cal/kg or more shall not be disposed of on landfills and shall only be utilised for generating energy either or through refuse derived fuel or by giving away as feed stock for preparing refuse derived fuel.
High calorific wastes shall be used for co-processing in cement or thermal power plants.
The local body or an operator of facility or an agency designated by them proposing to set up waste to energy plant of more than five tones per day processing capacity shall submit an application in Form-I to the State Pollution Control Board or Pollution Control Committee, as the case may be, for authorisation.
The State Pollution Control Board or Pollution Control Committee, on receiving such application for setting up waste to energy facility, shall examine the same and grant permission within sixty days.
Time frame for implementation.- Necessary infrastructure for implementation of these rules shall be created by the local bodies and other concerned authorities, as the case may be, on their own, by directly or engaging agencies within the time frame specified below:
Time limit from
the date of
identification of suitable sites for setting up solid waste processing facilities
identification of suitable sites for setting up common regional sanitary landfill facilities
for suitable clusters of local authorities under 0.5 million population and for setting
up common regional sanitary landfill facilities or stand alone sanitary landfill facilities by
all local authorities having a population of 0.5 million or more .
procurement of suitable sites for setting up solid waste processing facility and sanitary
enforcing waste generators to practice segregation of bio degradable, recyclable,
combustible, sanitary waste domestic hazardous and inert solid wastes at source ,
Ensure door to door collection of segregated waste and its transportation in
covered vehicles to processing or disposal facilities.
ensure separate storage, collection and transportation of construction and demolition
setting up solid waste processing facilities by all local bodies having 100000 or more
Setting up solid waste processing facilities by local bodies and census towns
below 100000 population.
setting up common or stand alone sanitary landfills by or for all local bodies having 0.5
million or more population for the disposal of only such residual wastes from the
processing facilities as well as untreatable inert wastes as permitted under the Rules
setting up common or regional sanitary landfills by all local bodies and census towns
under 0.5 million population for the disposal of permitted waste under the rules
bio-remediation or capping of old and abandoned dump sites
Specifications For Sanitary Landfills
Criteria For Site Selection.-
The department in the business allocation of land assignment shall provide suitable site for setting up of the solid waste processing and treatment facilities and notify such sites.
The sanitary landfill site shall be planned, designed and developed with proper documentation of construction plan as well as a closure planin a phased manner. In case a new landfill facility is being established adjoining an existing landfill site, the closure plan of existing landfill should form a part of the proposal of such new landfill.
The landfill sites shall be selected to make use of nearby wastes processing facilities. Otherwise, wastes processing facility shall be planned as an integral part of the landfill site.
Landfill sites shall be set up as per the guidelines of the Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India and Central Pollution Control Board.
The existing landfill sites which are in use for more than five years shall be improved in accordance with the specifications given in this Schedule.
The landfill site shall be large enough to last for at least 20-25 years and shall develop ‘landfill cells’ in a phased manner to avoid water logging and misuse.
The landfill site shall be 100 meter away from river, 200 meter from a pond, 200 meter from Highways, Habitations, Public Parks and water supply wells and 20 km away from Airports or Airbase. However in a special case, landfill site may be set up within a distance of 10 and 20 km away from the Airport/Airbase after obtaining no objection certificate from the civil aviation authority/ Air force as the case may be. The Landfill site shall not be permitted within the flood plains as recorded for the last 100 years, zone of coastal regulation, wetland, Critical habitat areas, sensitive eco-fragile areas..
The sites for landfill and processing and disposal of solid waste shall be incorporated in the Town Planning Department’s land-use plans.
A buffer zone of no development shall be maintained around solid waste processing and disposal facility, exceeding five Tonnes per day of installed capacity. This will be maintained within the total area of the solid waste processing and disposal facility. The buffer zone shall be prescribed on case to case basis by the local body in consultation with concerned State Pollution Control Board.
The biomedical waste shall be disposed of in accordance with the Bio-medical Waste Management Rules, 2016, as amended from time to time . The hazardous waste shall be managed in accordance with the Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2016, as amended from time to time. The Ewaste shall be managed in accordance with the e-Waste (Management ) Rules, 2016 as amended from time to time.
Temporary storage facility for solid waste shall be established in each landfill site to accommodate the waste in case of non- operation of waste processing and during emergency or natural calamities.
Criteria For Development of Facilities at The Sanitary Landfills.-
Landfill site shall be fenced or hedged and provided with proper gate to monitor incoming vehicles, to prevent entry of unauthorised persons and stray animals
The approach and / internal roads shall be concreted or paved so as to avoid generation of dust particles due to vehicular movement and shall be so designed to ensure free movement of vehicles and other machinery.
The landfill site shall have waste inspection facility to monitor waste brought in for landfilling h, office facility for record keeping and shelter for keeping equipment and machinery including pollution monitoring equipment.The operator of the facility shall maintain record of waste received, processed and disposed.Provisions like weigh bridge to measure quantity of waste brought at landfill site, fire protection equipment and other facilities as may be required shall be provided.
Utilities such as drinking water and sanitary facilities (preferably washing/bathing facilities for workers) and lighting arrangements for easy landfill operations during night hours shall be provided.
Safety provisions including health inspections of workers at landfill sites shall be carried out made.
Provisions for parking, cleaning, washing of transport vehicles carrying solid waste shall be provided. The wastewater so generated shall be treated to meet the prescribed standards.
Criteria For Specifications of Land Filling Operations and Closure on Completion of Land Filling.-
Waste for land filling shall be compacted in thin layers using heavy compactors to achieve high density of the waste. In high rainfall areas where heavy compactors cannot be used, alternative measures shall be adopted.
Till the time waste processing facilities for composting or recycling or energy recovery are set up, the waste shall be sent to the sanitary landfill. The landfill cell shall be covered at the end of each working day with minimum 10 cm of soil, inert debris or construction material..
Prior to the commencement of monsoon season, an intermediate cover of 40-65 cm thickness of soil shall be placed on the landfill with proper compaction and grading to prevent infiltration during monsoon. Proper drainage shall be constructed to divert run-off away from the active cell of the landfill.
After completion of landfill, a final cover shall be designed to minimise infiltration and erosion. The final cover shall meet the following specifications, namely :--
The final cover shall have a barrier soil layer comprising of 60 cm of clay or amended soil with permeability coefficient less than 1 x 10-7 cm/sec.
On top of the barrier soil layer, there shall be a drainage layer of 15 cm.
On top of the drainage layer, there shall be a vegetative layer of 45 cm to support natural plant growth and to minimise erosion.
Criteria For Pollution Prevention - In Order to Prevent Pollution From Landfill Operations
shall be made, namely:-
The storm water drain shall be designed and constructed in such a way that the surface runoff water is diverted from the landfilling site and leachates from solid waste locations do not get mixed with the surface runoff water. Provisions for diversion of storm water discharge drains shall be made to minimise leachate generation and prevent pollution of surface water and also for avoiding flooding and creation of marshy conditions.
Non-permeable lining system at the base and walls of waste disposal area. For landfill receiving residues of waste processing facilities or mixed waste or waste having contamination of hazardous materials (such as aerosols, bleaches, polishes, batteries, waste oils, paint products and pesticides) shall have liner of composite barrier of 1.5 mm thick high density polyethylene (HDPE) geo-membrane or geo-synthetic liners, or equivalent, overlying 90 cm of soil (clay or amended soil) having permeability coefficient not greater than 1 x 10-7 cm/sec.The highest level of water table shall be at least two meter below the base of clay or amended soil barrier layer provided at the bottom of landfills.
Provisions for management of leachates including its collection and treatment shall be made. The treated leachate shall be recycled or utilized as permitted, otherwise shall be released into the sewerage line, after meeting the standards specified in Schedule- II.. In no case, leachate shall be released into open environment.
Arrangement shall be made to prevent leachate runoff from landfill area entering any drain, stream, river, lake or pond. In case of mixing of runoff water with leachate or solid waste, the entire mixed water shall be treated by the concern authority.
Criteria For Water Quality Monitoring
Before establishing any landfill site, baseline data of ground water quality in the area shall be collected and kept in record for future reference. The ground water quality within 50 meter of the periphery of landfill site shall be periodically monitored covering different seasons in a year that is, summer, monsoon and post-monsoon period to ensure that the ground water is not contaminated.
Usage of groundwater in and around landfill sites for any purpose (including drinking and irrigation) shall be considered only after ensuring its quality. The following specifications for drinking water quality shall apply for monitoring purpose, namely :-
IS 10500:2012, Edition 2.2(2003-09)
Desirable limit (mg/l except for pH)
Chromium(as Cr6+ )
Nitrate as NO3
Total hardness (as CaCO3)
Phenolic compounds (as
Sulphate (as SO4)
Criteria For Ambient Air Quality Monitoring
Landfill gas control system including gas collection system shall be installed at landfill site to minimize odour, prevent off-site migration of gases, to protect vegetation planted on the rehabilitated landfill surface. For enhancing landfill gas recovery, use of geomembranes in cover systems along with gas collection wells should be considered.
The concentration of methane gas generated at landfill site shall not exceed 25 per cent of the lower explosive limit (LEL).The landfill gas from the collection facility at a landfill site shall be utilized for either direct thermal applicationmeet the standards prescribed by the Central Pollution Control Board for Industrial area.
Criteria For Plantation at Landfill Site - A Vegetative Cover Shall be Provided Over the Completed Site in Accordance
with the following specifications, namely:-
Locally adopted non-edible perennial plants that are resistant to drought and extreme temperatures shall be planted;
The selection of plants should be of such variety that their roots do not penetrate more than 30 cms. This condition shall apply till the landfill is stabilized;
Selected plants shall have ability to thrive on low-nutrient soil with minimum nutrient addition;
Plantation to be made in sufficient density to minimise soil erosion.
Green belts shall be developed all around the boundary of the landfill in consultation with State Pollution Control Boards or Pollution Control Committees .
Criteria For Post-Care of Landfill Site
(1) The post-closure care of landfill site shall be conducted for at least fifteen
years and long term monitoring or care plan shall consist of the following, namely :-‘
Maintaining the integrity and effectiveness of final cover, making repairs and preventing run-on and run-off from eroding or otherwise damaging the final cover;
Monitoring leachate collection system in accordance with the requirement;
Monitoring of ground water in and around landfill;
Maintaining and operating the landfill gas collection system to meet the standards.
(2) Use of closed landfill sites after fifteen years of post-closure monitoring can be considered for human settlement or otherwise only after ensuring that gaseous emission and leachate quality analysis complies with the specified standards and the soil stability is ensured.
Criteria For Special Provisions For Hilly Areas
Cities and towns located on hills shall have location-specific methods evolved for final disposal of solid waste by the local body with the approval of the concerned State Pollution Control Board or the Pollution Control Committee. The local body shall set up processing facilities for utilisation of biodegradable organic waste. The non-biodegradable recyclable materials shall be stored and sent for recycling periodically. The inert and non-biodegradable waste shall be used for building roads or filling-up of appropriate areas on hills. In case of constraints in finding adequate land in hilly areas, waste not suitable for road-laying or filling up shall be disposed of in regional landfills in plain areas.
Closure and Rehabilitation of Old Dumps
Solid waste dumps which have reached their full capacity or those which will not receive additional waste after setting up of new and properly designed landfills should be closed and rehabilitated by examining the following options:
Reduction of waste by bio mining and waste processing followed by placement of residues in new landfills or capping as in below.
Capping with solid waste cover or solid waste cover enhanced with geomembrane to enable collection and flaring / utilisation of greenhouse gases.
Capping as in above with additional measures (in alluvial and other coarse grained soils) such as
cut-off walls and extraction wells for pumping and treating contaminated ground water.
Any other method suitable for reducing environmental impact to acceptable level
Standards of Processing and Treatment of Solid Waste
Standards For Composting
The waste processing facilities shall include composting as one of the technologies for processing of bio degradable waste. In order to prevent pollution from compost plant, the following shall be complied with namely :-
The incoming organic waste at site shall be stored properly prior to further processing. To the extent possible, the waste storage area should be covered. If, such storage is done in an open area, it shall be provided with impermeable base with facility for collection of leachate and surface water run-off into lined drains leading to a leachate treatment and disposal facility;
Necessary precaution shall be taken to minimise nuisance of odour, flies, rodents, bird menace and fire hazard;
In case of breakdown or maintenance of plant, waste intake shall be stopped and arrangements be worked out for diversion of waste to the temporary processing site or temporary landfill sites which will be again reprocessed when plant is in order;
Pre-process and post-process rejects shall be removed from the processing facility on regular basis and shall not be allowed to pile at the site. Recyclables shall be routed through appropriate vendors. The non-recyclable high calorific fractions to be segregated and sent to waste to energy or for RDF production, co-processing in cement plants or to thermal power plants. Only rejects from all processes shall be sent for sanitary landfill site(s).
The windrow area shall be provided with impermeable base. Such a base shall be made of concrete or compacted clay of 50 cm thick having permeability coefficient less than 10–7 cm/sec. The base shall be provided with 1 to 2 per cent slope and circled by lined drains for collection of leachate or surface run-off;
Ambient air quality monitoring shall be regularly carried out. Odurnuisance at down-wind direction on the boundary of processing plant shall also be checked regularly.
Leachate shall be re-circulated in compost plant for moisture maintenance.
The end product compost shall meet the standards prescribed under Fertilizer Control Order notified from time to time.
In order to ensure safe application of compost, the following specifications for compost quality shall be met, namely
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