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Effluent and Emission Standards for Sponge Iron Plant


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Emission Standards






Sponge Iron Plant (Rotary Kiln

  1. Emission Standards*



Fuel Type

Limiting value for Concentration


Particulate Matter


100 mg/Nm³






Carbon Monoxide (Vol/Vol.)




Stack Height** (Minimum)


30.0 m



(*) Emission Shall Be normalized at 12% CO2 in stack emission.

(**) Stack height shall be calculated as H=14.0 Q°?³ where Q is the emission of Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) in kg/hr i.e.




Up to 12.68











De-dusting unit

Particulate matter

Existing unit

New Unit






  • Stack attached to de-dusting unit shall have a minimum height of 30.0 meter

  • If De-dusting unit is connected to After Burner Chamber (ABC), emission shall be emitted through common stack (minimum height 30.0 meters) having separate arrangements for emission monitoring for de-dusting unit.

For more details, please visit

  1. Fugitive Emission  standards

Rotary Kiln/De-dusting unit

Particulate matter

Existing unit

New unit





  • The existing industry shall comply with a standard of 2000 (µg/m³) after one year the date of notification.

  • Fugitive emission shall be monitored at a distance of 10.0 meter from the source of fugitive emission as per following:


Monitoring Location

Raw material handling area

Wagon tippler, Screen area, Transfer points, Stock bin area

Crusher area

Crushing plant, Vibrating screen, transfer points

Raw material feed area

Feeder area, Mixing area, Transfer points

Cooler discharge area

  • discharge area, Transfer Points, Product processing area intermediate stock bin area, Screening Plant, Magnetic  separation unit Transfer points, Oversize discharge area, product separation area, a Bagging area

Other areas

As specified by the Pollution Control Board (SPCB)/Pollution Control Committee (PCC)

  1. Effluent  Standards




5.5 - 9.0

Total suspended solids


Oil & grease

10 mg/l

Chemical oxygen demand

250 mg/l


Guidelines/Code of Practice for Pollution Prevention for Sponge Iron Plants

  1. Air Pollution

  1. Stack Emission from Kiln

  • Suitable Air Pollution Control System shall be installed to achieve the prescribed stack emission standards. The following air pollution control system/combination of the system is most commonly used in such type of industry:

  • Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP)

  • Bag Filter

  • Wet Scrubber

  • Cyclone/Multiclone

  • All Pollution control equipment may be provided with separate electricity meter and totalizer for continuous recording of power consumption. The amperage of the ID fan may also be recorded continuously. Non-functioning of pollution control equipment should be recorded in the same logbook along with the reason for not running the Pollution Control Equipment.

  • The safety cap/emergency stack of rotary kiln type plant, which is generally installed above the After Burner Chamber (ABC) of feed end column, should not be used for discharging untreated emission, bypassing the air pollution control device.

  • In order to prevent bypassing of emission through safety cap and non-operation of pollution control device, software controlled interlocking facility should provided on the basis of real-time data from the plant control system, to ensure stoppage of feed conveyor, so that, feed to the kiln would stop automatically, if safety cap of the rotary kiln is opened or Air Pollution Control System is not in operation. The system should be able to take care of multiple operating parameters and their interrelations to prevent any possibility of defeating the basic objective of the interlock. The system should be floor proof to prevent any kind of tempering. The software-based interlocking system proposed to be installed by industry should be get approved by the concerned State Pollution Control Board (SPCB), for its adequacy, before installation by the industry.

  • Mechanically operating system for timely collection and removal of the flue dust generated in the air pollution control device shall be installed.

  1. Stack Emission from de-dusting units

  • All de-dusting units should be connected to a stack having a minimum stack height of 30 m. However, in specific stack height can be reduced as specified in the notified standards. Sampling porthole and platform etc. shall be provided as per Central Pollution Control Board( CPCB ) emission regulation to facilitate stack monitoring. De-dusting units can also be connected to ABC chamber and finally emitted through the stack with Kiln off-gas emission.

  1. Fugitive Emission

  • The measurement may be done, preferably on the basis with high volume sampler. However, depending upon the conditions at the site, the period of measurement can be reduced.

  • For more information about Delhi Pollution Control Committee (DPCC) Click here                              Delhi Pollution Control Committee 

  • For more information about State Pollution Board Click here                                                                        State Pollution Board 

  1. Effluent Discharge

  • All efforts should be made to reuse and re-circulate the water and to maintain zero effluent discharge

  • Stormwater/garland drain should be provided in the plant.

  1. Noise Control

  • The industry should take measures to control the Noise Pollution so that the noise level standards already notified for the area

  1. Solid waste management

  • Char should be mixed with coal or coal washery rejects and used as fuel for generation of power. It is a viable option for plants having capacity 200 TPD and above. the smaller capacity individual Sponge Iron Plants (capacity up to 100 TPD) and operating in the can collectively install unit for power generation. The Sponge Iron Plant are free to explore other options/ possibilities to use char for generation of power. Char can be sold to local entrepreneurs for making coal briquettes. It can also be mixed with coal fines, converted to briquettes and used in brick kilns. The industry can explore other reuse/recycling techniques for char.

  • Under no char should be disposed in agriculture fields/other areas. Logbook for the record, of Char production and usage must be maintained by the industry and the record shall be made available to officials of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)/State Pollution Control Board (CPCB)/ Pollution Control Committee (PCC) during the .

Kiln Accretions

The kiln accretions are heavy solid lumps and can be used as sub-base material for road construction or landfill, after ascertaining the composition for its suitability and ensuring that it should not have any adverse environmental impact. The industry can explore other reuse/recycling techniques for Kiln Accretions.

Gas Cleaning Plant (GCP)/Scrubber Sludge

The sludge should be compacted and suitably disposed off after ascertaining the composition for its suitability and ensuring that it should not have any adverse environmental impact. The industry can explore other reuse/recycling techniques for Gas Cleaning Plant(GCP)/Scrubber Sludge

Flue Dust

Flue dust is generated from the air pollution control system installed with the kiln. Secondary flue dust is also generated from air pollution control equipment installed with Raw Material Handling, Coal Crusher, Cooler Discharge and Product house unit. The reuse/recycling of the flue dust generated/Collected may be explored and suitably implemented.

Fly ash

Fly ash is generated from Char/Coal based Captive Power Plant if any. Fly ash brick making plant may be installed for fly ash utilization. Fly ash can be utilized in cement making by Cement Industry also. The industry can explore other reuse/recycling techniques for Flue Dust/Fly ash.

Bottom Ash

Bottom Ash is generated from Char/Coal based Captive Power Plant if any. Bottom ash may have objectionable metallic compounds, therefore should be stored in properly designed landfills as per Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) guidelines to prevent leaching to the sub-soil and underground aquifer.


  • Solid waste management program should be prepared with thrust on reuse and recycling. Solid waste disposal site should be earmarked within the plant premises. The storage site of solid waste should be scientifically designed keeping in view that the storage of solid waste should not have any adverse impact on the air quality or water regime, in any way.

  • The various types of solid wastes generated should be stored separately as per Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) guidelines so that it should not adversely affect the air quality, becoming airborne by wind or water regime during the rainy season by flowing along with the stormwater.

  1. Raw Material Handling and Preparation

  • Unloading of coal by trucks or wagons should be carried out with proper care avoiding dropping off the materials from a height. It is advisable to moist the material by sprinkling water while unloading.

  • Crushing and screening operation should be carried out in an enclosed area. Centralized de-dusting facility (collection hood and suction arrangements followed by suitable de-dusting units such as bag filter or ESP or equally effective method or wet scrubber or any other de-dusting unit and finally discharge of emission through a stack) should be provided to control Fugitive Particulate Matter Emissions. The stack should confirm to the stack should be provided at raw material heaps and on land around the crushing and screening units.

  • Work area including the roads surrounding the plant shall be asphalted or concerted

  • The enclosure should be provided for belt conveyors and transfer points of belt conveyors

    • The above enclosures shall be rigid and permanent (and not of flexible/cloth type enclosure) and filled with self-closing doors and close fitting entrances and exits, where conveyors pass through the enclosures. Flexible covers shall be installed at entry and exit of the conveyor to the enclosures, minimizing the gaps around the conveyors.

    • In the wet system, water sprays/sprinklers shall be provided at the following strategic locations for dust suppression during raw material transfer

  • Belt conveyor discharge/transfer point

  • Crusher/screen discharge locations

  1. Waste Heat Recovery Boiler(WHRB)

  • Sponge Iron Plants of capacity more than 100 TPD kilns may use Waste Heat Boiler (WHRB) for generation of power. Installation of Waste Heat Recovery Boiler (WHRB) may qualify the industry for CDM benefits

  1. Cooler Discharge and Product Separation Unit

  • The permanent and rigid enclosure shall be provided for belt conveyors and transfer points of belt conveyors. A dust extraction cum control system to arrest product loss in cooler discharge and product separation area may be installed.

  1. Char based Power Plant

  • For plant having capacity of 200 TPD of cumulative Kiln capacity, the power generation using char as a part of the is a viable option. Power generation using char as a part of the a viable option. Power generation using char as a part of fuel may be implemented in a phased manner targeting for 100% utilization of char.

  • Individual Sponge Iron Plants of capacity 100 TPD and located in the can install a common char based power plant collectively.

  1. New Sponge Iron Plants

  • No new Sponge Iron Plant will be commissioned without installation of Pollution control system to achieve the stipulated standards. The concerned State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) will accord consent to operate only after physical verification of the adequacy of the installed pollution control systems for meeting the standards and stipulated conditions in the consent to establish.

  • All new kilns shall have an independent stack with the kiln or multi or multi-file stack in case two or more kilns are joining the same stack for better dispersion of pollutants.

  • Any entrepreneur having more than 2x100 TPD kiln may install WHRB for power generation, as it’s a technically viable option, which also qualifies the industry for CDM benefits.

For plants having a of 200 TPD or more, Power generation using char as part of the in the is techno-economics viable option, therefore, new plants may install power generation unit at the time of installation of the .

  1. General Guidelines

  • Extensive plantation/greenbelt shall be developed along the roads and the boundary line of the industry. A minimum 15 m width green belt along the boundary shall be maintained. However, the green belt may be designed scientifically depending upon the requirement and local and mix species of plants may be selected for the green belt.

  • Monitoring of stack emission, fugitive emissions, trade effluent and noise level shall be done as per Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) regulations. Online stack monitoring facilities shall be provided and operated continuously to ensure compliance to stack emission standards. Calibration of the system to be carried out by a third party accredited laboratory. List of the accredited laboratory may be obtained from Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)/ State Pollution Control Board (SPCB).

  • Pollution control system shall be operated as an integral part of production to ensure minimum emission. Pollution Control System shall start before conveyor operation/operation of the plant. Similarly, pollution control system shall be stopped only after completion of conveyor operation/operation of the plant so that possibility of dust settlement in ducts can be eliminated. Continuous evacuation of dust from air pollution control systems such as dust catchers, ESPs, Bag filter hopper etc. shall be organized.

  1. Siting Guideline for Sponge Iron Plants

Siting of new sponge iron plants shall be as per respective State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) guidelines. the following aspects shall also be considered:

  • Residential habitation (residential localities/village) and ecologically and/or otherwise sensitive areas: A minimum distance of at least 1000m (1.0 km) to be maintained

  • If any plant/clusters of plants are located within 1 Km from any residential area/village they may be shifted by State Pollution Control Board(SPCB)/State Government in a phased manner for which a time-bound action plan is to be prepared by State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs).

  • The location of Sponge Iron Plant should be at least 500 m away from National Highway and State Highway.

  • The radial distance between two Sponge Iron Plants should be 5 km for plants having capacity 1000 TPD or more.

  • Sponge Iron Plants can be established in designated industrial areas/Estates as notified by State Government.


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Vipan Singh
Vipan is known for his passion for diversity and his work with corpseed. In his spare time, he is involved with numerous charitable activities and considers his greatest achievement to be the fact that he helps Startups and Entrepreneurs to scale up