Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

Environmental impact assessment is an instrument to evaluate the consequences of establishment of new project or expansion of project related to industries, mining, pipeline, highway etc.

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EIA (Environment Impact Assessment) from CPCB / Ministry of Environment & Forests

 Environmental impact assessment is an instrument to evaluate the consequences of establishment of new project or expansion of project related to industries, mining, pipeline, highway etc. It is ensuring optimal use of natural resources for sustainable development. EIA has now been made mandatory under the Environmental (Protection Act, 1986) for 29 categories of developmental activities involving investments of Rs. 50 cr. and above.
The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) should be prepared on the basis of the existing background pollution levels vis-a-vis contributions of pollutants from the proposed plant. The EIA should address some of the basic factors such as Meteorology and air quality, Hydrology and water quality, Site and its surroundings, Occupational safety and health, Details of the treatment and disposal of effluent ( liquid, air and solid) and the methods of alternative uses, Transportation of raw material and details of material handling, Control equipment and measures proposed to be adopted.

Procedure for getting EIA

Any person willing to undertake any new project in any part of India or the expansion or modernization of any existing industry or project listed in the Schedule-I shall submit an application to the Project authority.
The application shall be made in the specified Performa and shall be accompanied by a project report which shall, inter alia, include an Environmental Impact Assessment Report, Environment Management Plan and details of public hearing.

Public hearing is not required for following industries:-

  • Small scale industrial undertaking located in notified area by central Government.

  • Widening and strengthening of highways

  • Mining projects (major minerals) with lease area up to twenty five hectares

  • Units located in Export Processing Zones, Special Economic Zones

  • Modernization of existing irrigation new project.

Environmental Impact Assessment report will not be required for pipeline project.
In the case of pipeline and highway projects, public hearing shall be conducted in each district through which the pipeline or highway passes through.
The project authorities will intimate the location of the project site to the central government in the Ministry of Environment and forests while initiating any investigation and surveys in the case of following site specific Projects:-

  • Mining

  • Pit-head thermal power station

  • Hydro –power , major irrigation projects and/or their combination including flood control

  • Ports and harbors (excluding minor ports)

  • Prospecting and exploration of major minerals in areas above 500 hectares.

Impact Assessment agency investigates the reports submitted with the application by applicant and if deemed necessary it may consult a committee of Experts.
The Committee of experts shall have the exclusive right of entry and inspection of site or as the case may be, factory premises at any time prior to, during or after the commencement of the operations relating to project.
The Impact Assessment Agency on the recommendation of committee of Expert prepare a detailed report, the assessment shall be completed within a period of ninety days from receipt of the requisite documents and data from the project authorities and completion of public hearing and decision conveyed within thirty days thereafter.
The Environment Impact Assessment permission shall be valid for a period of five years for commencement of the construction or operation of the project.

Document required for Environment Impact Assessment (EIA)

1. Details of Applicant
2. Details of project Proposed
3. Details of Alternative Site
4. Details of nature of land
5. Details of objectives of project
6. Details of climate and air quality
7. Details of water balance at site
8. Details of solid Waste
9. Details of noise and vibration
10.Details of power requirements
11.Details of Manpower
12.Risk Assessment report
13.Disaster Management Plan
14.Environmental Impact Assessment repot
15.Environment management plan report
16.Detailed Feasibility report
17.NOC from State pollution control Board
18.Details of environment management cell

Validity of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

Once the permission is granted, it is valid for five years from the commencement of project but project authorities are required to report every six months on the progress of implementation of conditions stipulated, while according clearance to the project. 

Frequently asked questions (FAQs)

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