Thermal Power Plants an Introduction
Coal, oil, hydro, nuclear, solar, biomass, and other energy sources are used to generate electricity. Thermal resources are coal, gas, diesel, and naphtha, and the plants that use these are known as Thermal Power Plants. Renewable Energy (RE) will play an essential role in satisfying energy needs in the near future, even as RE gains traction in the coming years and dependency on thermal sources – particularly coal – must be decreased. The way TPPs are set up and run will have a huge impact on the environment.
India's net power generation capacity was 2,25,793.10 MW in 2013. Thermal power generating accounts for a significant portion of electricity generation, with a total installed capacity of 153847.99 MW (68 percent). Hydropower has an installed capacity of 39,623.40 MW (18%), whereas nuclear power has an installed capacity of 4,780.00 MW (2 percent). RE has an installed capacity of roughly 27,541.71 MW.
Because both mining and using coal have major environmental consequences, India's reliance on coal for power is a serious environmental concern. Coal-fired power plants are the leading source of CO2, sulfur, and mercury emissions in the United States. Coal plants will damage the water, air, and soil, affecting biodiversity and livelihoods if proper remedial measures are not done. Particulate emissions from coal-fired power plants in India caused an estimated 80,000 to 115,000 premature deaths and more than 20 million asthma cases in 2011-12, according to a study conducted by Conservation Action Trust, Greenpeace India, and Urban Emissions, costing the public and the government an estimated Rs 16,000 – Rs 23,000 crore ($3500- $3833 million).
Environmental and Health Impacts of Coal Based Plant
- AIR - It causes breathing problems, has an impact on historic structures causes climate change
- WATER - Has an impact on water quality and, as a result, lowers the amount of time available for consumption by humans. As a result of the hot water, it has an impact on fishing releasing into the water kills or harms marine species migration.
- SOIL - Due to a rise in soil alkalinity, crop cultivation is limited. As the amount of land accessible for agriculture decreases, crop cultivation is limited. Affects the growth of plants
- HUMAN - Farmers and fishermen's livelihoods are affected. Hazardous working conditions increase the probability of accidents.
For setting up Thermal Power Plants, need of Environmental Clearance.
Introduction to EIA Notification, 2006
The Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) is India's central government's key body for planning, promotion, coordination, and oversight of the country's environmental and forestry policies and programs.
The Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF) has the authority under the Environmental Protection Act of 1986 (EPA) to restrict areas where any activity, operation, or process can be carried out or can be permitted subject to specific safeguards. [Clause V, Sub-sec(2), Section 3 of the EPA].
The Environmental Impact Assessment Notification 2006 (EIA Notification) has been issued under the EPA.
The EPA currently requires an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for 39 types of developmental undertakings involving investments of Rs.50 crore or more.
- All new projects and activities indicated in the Schedule to this Notification require prior Environmental Clearance, according to the EIA Notification.
- Expansion and modernization of existing projects included in the Notification's Schedule.
Thermal Power Plant are listed as item 1 (d) under the schedule to the Notification.
Environmental Clearance Should Be Obtained By A Thermal Power Plant. In Case,
- Prior to the installation of a new plant,
- Prior to the expansion or modernization of an existing facility
- For modifications to an existing plant's product mix
Which are Those Authorities can Issue EC?
- Ministry of Environment & Forest [MoEF]
- State Environment Impact Assessment Authority [SEIAA]
Who Recommends Issue for Environmental Clearance for a Project to the Authorities?
The MoEF will grant EC for projects that it is evaluating based on the EAC's recommendations. Similarly, the SEIAA will grant EC based on the SEAC's recommendations.
Figure: Flowchart Showing EIA Process Of Thermal Power Plant
Obtaining EC for New TPPs
The EC process is following:
- Project Proponent/Applicant submits application to MoEF/SEIAA
- The MoEF/SEIAA issues Terms of Reference
- Project Proponent/Applicant Submission of EIA and Public Consultation the State Pollution Control Board is in charge of regulating pollution in the state (SPCB)
- Issuance of an EC / Application Rejection by the MoEF/SEIAA
Land Requirements for Thermal Power Plant
Communities living near the proposed site of a thermal power station, as well as the project proponent, are concerned about land use. In order to provide operation and maintenance flexibility, the best use of land should be considered. As a result, proper and preceding field and technical studies are required for the efficient use of land and other resources (water, coal, and vegetation). The amount of land required for a power plant is determined by a variety of factors.
- type of coal (indigenous or imported)
- location of the plant (pithead or coastal)
- coal storage capacity
- mode of coal receipt
- water storage capacity is planned depending on the source of water and its availability
- type of condenser cooling system
- greenbelt required
- capacities of water and wastewater treatment plants
A thermal power plant's land requirements are often classified into two categories: within plant land requirements and outer plant land requirements. The former consists of the main plant area (boiler, turbine generator, and transformer yard), coal handling system, raw water reservoir, water system (water & wastewater treatment, and cooling tower water demand), switchyard, ash handling system, FGD system, roadways, landscaping, and green belt. Ash pond, raw water pumping house with desilting plant, ash slurry corridor, raw water pipelines, and township are all outside plant land requirements.
The land necessary for a 5 x 800 MW thermal power plant using indigenous coal is shown in Figure A, whereas the land required for a 5 x 800 MW thermal power plant utilizing imported coal is shown in Figure B. The areas to the left of the red line in both figures show the land required outside the plant, while the areas to the right of the red line represent the land required inside the facility.
In all circumstances, the maximum amount of land is required inside the plant for the green belt cover, which cannot be reduced due to its environmental importance. Coal handling and water systems are two more land-intensive businesses.
The ash pond, which is an important feature of a power station, takes up the most territory outside the plant. This region cannot be compromised due to its environmental significance because it keeps and dries the ash before disposing of it or closing the pond rather than disposing of it without treatment.
The amount of land required for coal handling is determined by the plant's location, type of coal unloading, coal quality, and storage requirements. Pithead power plants require less storage land than coal-fired power plants, both domestic and imported.
The amount of land necessary for a raw water reservoir in a water system is determined by the following factors:
- Specific water consumption,
- Plant capacity,
- Quantity of water to be stored, and
- Reservoir depth.
The amount of water used by the plant to generate 1 MWh of electricity is known as specific water consumption. According to the MoEF&CC EIA notification 2015, the top limit for water consumption is 2.5 m3/MWh, the storage capacity in the water reservoir must be for 10 days, and the reservoir depth can range from 5 to 12 metres depending on the soil strata. Water storage can be partially underground and partially above ground in regions with limited space. In such circumstances, the breaching problem should be dealt with as away.
Adapting to new technologies, such as the Gas Insulated Switchgear Switchyard, can reduce the amount of land required for switchyards (GIS). GIS is a small metal cased switchgear that takes up 10% less area than traditional switchgear. Instead of abandoning areas designated for pre-construction activity, they can be transformed into green belt areas once the work is completed.
Outside of the plant, the amount of land needed for the township can be lowered by customizing multi-story residential buildings.
These are the main regions where land for a thermal power plant is being obtained. The location of a power plant has a considerable impact on the power plant's design, construction, and operation costs, as well as the project's production. Because the increase in the amount of solid waste generated by power plants is a severe environmental issue, a power project can deftly provide output by efficiently and safely utilizing land resources.
Documents Required for Setting up A Thermal Power Plant
- Certification of Incorporation, the commencement of business
- Sales tax registration
- IT PAN number
- Filling of Industrial enterprise memorandum
- Mega power status
- Offshore financing arrangements, tax confirmation
- MoU with State Government
- Import – export code
It Should Be Registered Under:
- State Employee Insurance Act of 1948 registration
- Affiliation with the Minimum Wage Act
- Affiliation with the Provident Fund Act
- Registration under the Employment Act
- Land Requirement Approval
- Exemption from stamp duty
- Land acquisition by private individuals
- Land allotment by the government
- Forest land allocation and forest land clearing
- Conversion of land from agricultural to non-agricultural usage
- Land allocation for fuel transportation (railway siding)
- Tribal land distribution
Coastal Regulatory Zone
- Water drawl permission
- Coastal regulatory zone
- Permission to extract water from a perennial river or dam
- Approval of the design of the water intake system
- Permission to use groundwater for construction purposes
- Fuel transportation contract
- Railway siding/Row for rail track permission
- Coal linkage/supply agreement/allotment of coal block application
- Mining plan preparation and approval
- Permission to utilize the waterfront and build a jetty ( in case of the seafront is used for transport)
Power Purchase Agreement
- Power Purchase Agreement
- Construction power approval
- Construction No Objection Certificate
- Heavy material/machinery transportation clearance on roads/bridges
- Permission under the Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Act of 1992 for different imports/spares
- Chimney/stack clearance height
- Certificate of no objection for construction storage, materials, and chemicals, etc.
- Approval of the construction power
- Clearance from the military
- Approval for blasting and related actions for site preparation in accordance with the Explosive Act.
Power Evacuation and Open Access
- Transmission utility approval
- Bulk Transmission Agreement Execution
- Factory pre-and post-installation approval
- Import of capital items requires customs clearance.
- Consent under the Factory Act of 1948, which pertains to firefighting competence
- Pre- and post-installation electrical layout approval
- Import duty exemption with a certificate of necessity
- Indian Boiler Regulation approval and registration of steam generator and allied pressure parts
- CEIG clearance number seven.
- Approval of the weighbridge and scales
- Approval for storage and transportation of petroleum products in accordance with the Indian Petroleum Act and Petroleum Rules.
- Gas cylinder approval, as well as handling and shipment of compressed gases
- COD certification and commissioning
- Permission to operate the plant
Basically for setting a plant there are four categories where each plant fall and they are in the following ways:
- RED – large plant
- ORANGE – medium plant
- GREEN – small plant
- WHITE – plant which doesn’t affect the environment
So the thermal power plant falls under the red category that can harm the surrounding area by their toxic pollutant. And for setting any plant we need NOC from the central government. For obtaining NOC we need to consent to establish a certificate from the state Government after that we get the consent to operate certificate from the respective state government or pollution control board.
This portion of the site is for informational purposes only. The content is not legal advice. The statements and opinions are the expression of author, not corpseed, and have not been evaluated by corpseed for accuracy, completeness, or changes in the law.
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