Man is directly or indirectly affected by pests. A pest may be defined as, any organism that causes an economic loss or damage to the physical well-being of human beings.
It may destroy crops, causes diseases in crops, cattle and human beings.
Insecticides are pesticides that are defined as any toxic substance used to kill, repel or control insects that cause economic damage to crops or ornamental plants or are hazardous to the health of domestic animal or man.
The Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers' Welfare (formerly Ministry of Agriculture), a part of the Government of India, is the top most body for formulation and administration of the rules and regulations and laws related to agriculture in India.
The insecticide license along with other license will be granted by the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers' Welfare.
Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers' Welfare
Under the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers' Welfare, plant protection, quarantine & storage division looks after the entire license regarding insecticide, pesticide, testing facility, peat control.
Other than granting license, the division works for the welfare of farmers by issuing time to time new rules and amendment in the previous one.
Types of Insecticides:
There are three different types of insecticides. They are:
- Systemic – This type of insecticide is introduced into the soil for it to get absorbed by the plant roots. Once the insecticide is absorbed by the roots, it moves to other areas like leaves, fruits, twigs, and branches. It creates a thin layer on the plant surface and acts as a poison to any insect that comes to eat the plant.
- Ingested – This type of insecticide is orally taken by the organisms. Examples of ingested pesticides are rat kills.
- Contact – These types of insecticides act like bullets that aim only at a particular target to kill insects by its application. Household insect repellent acts like a contact insecticide as it directly hit the insect.
- On the basis of chemical composition, it is classified as organic and inorganic.
- On the basis of mode of entry in the insects, it is classified as contact poisons, fumigants poisons, stomach poisons, and systemic poisons.
- On the basis of mode of action, it is classified as physical poisons, nerve poisons, respiratory poisons, protoplasmic poisons, general poisons, and chitin inhibitors.
- On the Basis of toxicity, it is differentiated into four types:
Extremely toxic – Color: red, symbol: skull and poison, oral LD50: 1-50
Moderately toxic – Color: blue, symbol: danger, oral LD50: 501 – 5000
Highly toxic – Color: yellow, symbol: poison, oral LD50: 51 – 500
Less toxic – Color: green, symbol: caution, oral LD50: >5000
- On the basis of infection on the different stages, it is classified as ovicides, pupicides, larvicides, and adulticides.