What is a Battery?
A battery is a device that consists of one or more electrochemical cells to supply power to electronic and electrical devices such as flashlights, mobile phones, and electric cars. When a battery is connected to an external electric load, a redox reaction occurs which converts high-energy reactants to lower-energy products, and then the free-energy difference is delivered to the external circuit which results in electrical energy. The battery is specifically referred to as a device that is composed of multiple numbers of cells; however, some battery has evolved to include devices composed of a single cell.
What are the Types of Batteries?
Batteries are classified into two types i.e. primary batteries and secondary batteries.
- What are primary batteries?
Primary batteries are the batteries that are designed to be used until exhaustion of energy then they are discarded. Their chemical reactions are generally not reversible. That is why, they cannot be recharged. When the supply of reactants in the battery is exhausted, the battery stops producing current and the battery becomes useless. Examples of primary batteries are zinc-carbon batteries and alkaline batteries.
- What are secondary batteries?
Secondary batteries are the batteries that can be recharged. So, their chemical reactions can be reversed by supplying electric current to the cell. This leads to the re-generation of the original chemical reactants. So, they can be recharged and used again number of times. Some of examples of secondary batteries are lead-acid batteries and lithium-ion batteries.
- What is Lithium-ion Battery?
A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery is a type of rechargeable battery or in other words, it is a type of secondary battery. Lithium ion batteries are rechargeable batteries that are characterized by very high-power densities. Such batteries have become very common for everyday electronic products such as cell phones, electric vehicles etc. These batteries are used for military purposes, battery in electric vehicles and also in aerospace applications.
Origin of Imports
The manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries in India is not sufficient to fulfill the demand, so India needs to import it from foreign countries. India imports Li-ion batteries from China, Japan and South Korea. India is among the largest importers of lithium-ion batteries in the world.
Import of Lithium-ion Batteries
Import of lithium-ion Batteries requires authorization from the concerned State Pollution Control Board/ Central Pollution Control Board & MoEF (Ministry of Environment & Forest).
An application that is complete in all respects along with documents can be submitted to the concerned pollution Board for authorization.
After Scrutinizing the documents by the Board, the board issues the authorization certificate in the name of the Unit.