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Emission standards for Brick Kilns

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Introduction

Brick production is a very large and long-established industry in India. The brick sector in India, which is not governed in a proper way or as per the guidelines of central government/state government, although, is tremendous in size. India is the second largest brick producer in the world. Now, it is an established fact that brick industries in some part of India are one the major contributors of air pollutant in the environment. The brick kiln industry is a establish or demanding industry as the demand for bricks is increasing almost universally due to fast economic growth. Most of the brick kilns use Assam coal, Slack coal and/or lignite which contain a high level of sulphur and high ash content, about 70 % of coal, 24% saw dust and remaining 6% wood and others are used fuel by brick kilns.

Types of Brick Kilns

  1. Hoffman Kiln

  2. Bull’s trench kiln

  3. Down-Draft kiln

  4. Vertical  shaft kiln

Sources of Emission

  1. Stack Height

  2. Fugitive Emission

  • During charging of fuel

  • Crushing of coal

  • Clay excavation

  • Loading and Unloading of Bricks

  • Laying and removal of dust/ash layer over brick setting

  • Cleaning of the bottom of trench/side flues

  • During high winds

For more details, please visit http://www.moef.nic.in/sites/default/files/Brick%20Kilns.PDF

In exercise of the powers conferred by section 6 and 25 of the environment (Protection) Act1986 (29 of 1986), the central government makes a rule for the Brick Kiln.

Emission Standards for Brick kilns:

S.No

Industry

Parameter

Standard

 Emission Standards

 

1

Brick Kilns

 

 

 

 

Bull’s Trench Kiln (BTK)

 

Particulars

Category

Limiting concertation in mg/Nm³

 

Particular matter

small

1000

 

medium

750

 

large

750

 

Minimum (meter)

 

Stack height

Small

22 or induced draft fan operating with minimum draft of 50 mm WG with 12-meter stack height.

 

 

Medium

27 or included draft fan operating with a minimum draft of 50mm WG with 15-meter stack height

 

 

large

30 or included draft fan operating with minimum draft 50 mm WG with 17-meter stack height.

 

 

Trench width(m)

Production   ( bricks/day)

 

Small BTK

<4.50

Less than 15000

 

Medium BTK

4.50-6.75

15000-30000

 

Large BTK

Above 6.75

Above 30,000

 

Down-Draft Kiln (DDK)

 

 

*category

Limiting Concentration in mg/Nm³

 

Particulate matter

Small/large/medium

1200

 

 

 

Minimum (meter)

 

Stack height

Small

12

 

 

Medium

15

 

 

Large

18

 

**category

Production(bricks/day)

 

DDK

small

Less than 15000

 

DDK

Medium

15000-30000

 

DDK

Large

Above 30000

 

Vertical Shaft kiln (VSK)

 

Category

Limiting Concentration in mg/Nm³

 

Particular matter

Small/large/medium

250

 

 

 

Minimum (meter)

 

Stack height

small

11 (at least 5.5 m from loading platform)

 

medium

14 (at least 7.5 m from loading Platform)

 

large

16 (at least 8.5m from loading platform)

 

category

Number of shifts

Production (bricks/day)

 

Small VSK

1-3

Less than 15000

 

Medium VSK

4-6

15000-30000

 

 

Large VSK

7 or more

Above 30,000

           

For more information about Delhi Pollution Control Committee (DPCC) Click here Delhi Pollution Control Committee

For more information about State Pollution Board Click here State Pollution Board

Notes.

  1. Gravitational Settling Chamber Along with Fixed Chimney of appropriate height shall be provided for all Bull’s Trench Kilns
  2. One chimney per shaft in Vertical Shaft Kiln shall be provided. The two chimneys emanating from a shaft either be joined (at the Loading Platform in case of the brick chimney or at the appropriate level in case of the metal chimney) to form a single chimney.
  3. The above standards shall be applicable for different Kilns if coal, firewood and/or agricultural residues are used as fuel

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Author
Vinay Singh
Vinay Thakur is Managing Partner in Corpseed. He focused on payments, digital transformation, and financial technology for over 15 years and holds strong expertise on fintech startups, banking innovation, and investors with a keen understanding of the trends and activities of startups, banks, and investors in the space.